Modern ultrasound equipment permits us to get a visual impression of the maturation of the follicles in the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, the womb (Uterus) and the build-up of the Endometrium, to check their functionality and to diagnose any irregularities which may be causing problems.
For example, a special ultrasound examination permits us to check whether the Fallopian tubes are patent. A thin piece of tubing is inserted into the uterine cavity, and is then used to flush the uterine cavity with a contrast medium (a special sugar solution). Then we can use ultrasound to spot whether the liquid flows through the Fallopian tubes, thereby indicating that they are patent.
This indirect procedure, for which no anaesthetic is normally required, allows a definite diagnosis in about 75% of all cases.